

Автор: Williams Дата: 7 февраля 2018 Просмотров: 606 

Ensoft Group 2016.10.12
GROUP has been well accepted as an useful design tool for analyzing the behavior of piles in a group subjected to both axial and lateral loadings. The program was developed to compute the distribution of loads (vertical, lateral, and overturning moment in up to three orthogonal axes) applied from any multiple locations in the pile cap to piles arranged in a group. The piles may be installed vertically or on a batter and their heads may be fixed, pinned, or elastically restrained by the pile cap. The pile cap may settle, translate, and/or rotate and is assumed to act as a rigid body.
The program will generate internally the nonlinear response of the soil, in the form of tz and qw curves for axial loading, in the form of py curves for lateral loading and in the form of tr curves for torsional loading. A solution requires iteration to accommodate the nonlinear response of each pile in the group model. Program GROUP solves the nonlinear response of each pile under combined loadings and assures compatibility of geometry and equilibrium of forces between the applied external loads and the reactions of each pile head.
The py, tz, qw and tr curves may be generated internally, employing recommendations in technical literature, or may be entered manually by the user. The pilehead forces and movements are introduced into equations that yield the behavior of the pile group in a global coordinate system. The program can internally compute the deflection, bending moment, shear, and soil resistance as a function of depth for each pile.
For closelyspaced piles, the pilesoilpile interaction can be taken into account by introducing reduction factors for the py curves used for each single pile. As an option, the user can ask the program to generate internally some suggestions for pmultipliers to automatically reduce the soil resistance. GROUP is able to generate or lets users specify py reduction factors for two orthogonal axes.
The program allows the user to select computations of the required unit side friction at the top and bottom of each soil layer along with a unit tip resistance. The program employs commonlyaccepted equations to compute internally the estimated unit side friction and unit tip resistance based on the soil properties that are specified by the user for each soil layer.
Users can also input external nonlinear curves of axial load versus settlement for each pile in the group. Those external curves can be obtained by the user based on load tests or using the Ensoft programs APILE and/or SHAFT.
GROUP introduces several enhancements: Use of multiple load cases representing concentrated loads at the pile cap and/or distributed lateral load at the piles; Concentrated loads at the pile cap may be defined at any position; Distributed lateral loads at the piles can be defined by local or global axes; Load combinations can be specified by the user and are set by load factors applied at the defined load cases; Maximum and minimum envelopes may be computed for both load cases and load combinations; GROUP v8 can provide flexibility and stiffness matrices (in 2D or 3D models) for different levels of loading. 

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